1. What were the key issues in the 1800 presidential election? Why is it called the “Revolution of 1800? ” Thomas Jefferson won the election of 1800 by a majority of 73 electoral votes to 65, and even though Adams got more popular votes, Jefferson got New York. But, even though Jefferson triumphed, in a technicality he and Aaron Burr tied for presidency. The vote, according to the Constitution, would now go to the Federalist-dominated House of Representatives.
Hateful of Jefferson, many wanted to vote for Burr, and the vote was deadlocked for months until Alexander Hamilton and John Adams persuaded a few House members to change their votes, knowing that if the House voted for Burr, the public outcry would doom the Federalist Party. Finally, a few changed their minds, and Jefferson was elected to the presidency. The “Revolution of 1800” was that there was a peaceful transfer of power; Federalists stepped down from office after Jefferson won and did so peacefully, though not necessarily happily and the Republicans were more of the “people’s party” compared to the Federalists. . Discuss the factors that led to the Louisiana Purchase. In 1800, Napoleon secretly induced the king of Spain to cede the Louisiana territory to France. Then, in 1802, the Spaniards at New Orleans withdrew the right of deposit guaranteed by the Pinckney Treaty of 1795. Such deposit privileges were vital to the frontier farmers who floated their goods down the Mississippi River to its mouth to await oceangoing vessels. These farmers talked of marching to New Orleans to violently get back what they deserved, an action that would have plunged the U. S. into war with Spain and France.
In 1803, Jefferson sent James Monroe to join regular minister Robert R. Livingston to buy New Orleans and as much land to the east of the river for a total of $10 million, tops. Instead, Napoleon offered to sell New Orleans and the land west of it, Louisiana, for a bargain of $15 million, thereby abandoning his dream of a French North American empire. The decision to sell Louisiana was also because Napoleon needed cash to renew his war with Britain. The Louisiana Purchase was finalized on April 30, 1803. The Senate quickly approved the purchase with Jefferson’s urging, and the Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States.
This was the biggest bargain in history averaging 3 cents per acre. 6. Analyze the cause of the War of 1812. America’s reasons for entering the War of 1812 were, “Freedom of the seas”, the U. S. wanted the right to sail and trade without fear. Possibility of land, the U. S. might gain Canada or Florida. Indian issues, Americans were still upset about British guns being giving to Indians. 7. Discuss the importance of Marbury v. Madison. The Judiciary Act, passed by the Federalists in their last days of Congressional domination in 1801, packed newly created judgeships with Federalist-backing men, so as to prolong their legacy.
Chief Justice John Marshall, a cousin of Jefferson, had served at Valley Forge during the war, and he had been impressed with the drawbacks of no central authority, and thus, he became a lifelong Federalist, committed to strengthening the power of the federal government. William Marbury had been one of the “midnight judges” appointed by John Adams in his last hours as president. He had been named justice of peace for D. C. , but when Secretary of State James Madison decided to shelve the position, Marbury sued for its delivery.
Marshall dismissed the case, but he said that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional, thus suggesting that the Supreme Court could determine the constitutionality of laws, judicial review. 8. Based upon the War of 1812, assess the effectiveness of the American military system. Due to widespread disunity, the War of 1812 ranks as one of America’s worst fought wars. There was not a burning national anger, like there was after the Chesapeake outrage; the regular army was very bad and scattered and had old, senile generals, and the offensive strategy against Canada was especially poorly conceived.
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