Cognitive: at this stage children can think in language without fully understanding, Pigged said that from 2-7 years they will be unable to work things out or think about things in a logical way (pre- operational stage). From 7-11 years they will be able to work out simple problems known as “concrete operations”, this is what Pigged called the concrete-operational stage. Emotional It is in the childhood life stage where people develop an idea of self, they will start understanding self and others. They are likely to direct a large amount of their energy in to mastering skills and knowledge.
Relationships with their parents, other relatives, friends and teachers will have an impact on the child’s self-confidence and how they feel valued. The child may develop a permanent sense of confidence or of inferiority and failure. Social Childhood is where social learning first occurs, primary solicitation will take place which is where a child will learn social roles and behaviors from within their family context. This will provide a ‘safe base’ from which children will explore relationships with other children and learn cooperation through play.
As a child gets older they will become increasingly independent by making friendships with other children which will lead to them developing mutual trust. Towards the end of the childhood stage, children will develop a circle of friends and will begin to be able to understand another person’s point of view. Adolescence (10-18 years) The physical changes that occur in the body during adolescence are mainly due to puberty, which is triggered by the hypothalamus in both genders. Puberty occurs generally between 11 and 13 years of age in females and between 13 and 15 years in males.
Female puberty: The physical changes that will occur in adolescent females are; pubic hairs, breast growth, periods beginning and widening of hips. These changes occur in order for females to prepare for pregnancy and childbirth and are driven by the hormone estrogen. Male puberty: Male adolescents will develop reams. These changes occur to make them physically strong and is driven by testosterone. Intellectual It is within the adolescence stage of life where ‘adult thinking’ will develop, this means thinking using logic and abstract thought processes and is called the formal operational stage in Piglet’s stages of development.
Logical thinking enables adolescents and adults to think scientifically and solve complex problems in their heads that they would not have previously been able to. Abstract thought processes allow adolescents and adults to think beyond the limits of everyday experience and wink through complicated problems without requiring to see concrete pictures to solve them. Emotional In adolescence the sense of self will continue to develop, in this stage adolescents will need to develop a secure sense of identity, this was first stated by Erikson.
A clear understanding of self-identity will enable a person to feel secure when working with others and also to make a sexual loving attachment to another person. Self-esteem in adolescence may depend on the development of identity. Social In adolescence, secondary social learning will occur. An adolescent’s self-worth will owe be more heavily influenced by other adolescents than by family. They will copy the behavior, clothing, interests, beliefs and cultural values from their own network of friends.
Adulthood (18-65 years) Early adulthood: A person’s physical performance will peak at 19-26 years, and at this age an adult will be optimistic about their future health. The main physical concerns are likely to be with diet, weight, exercise, addiction, reproduction, pregnancy and breastfeeding. Middle adulthood: this is when health concerns will begin to develop and sight is very likely to decline. An adult in this stage will also develop wrinkles and grey hairs. Men will experience a reduction of testosterone and women will experience menopause, this is a sharp reduction in estrogen, reduction of bone density and loss of fertility.
Intellectual Adulthood is also included in Piglet’s formal operational stage of intellectual development, which I have described in the adolescence intellectual development stage. A psychologist called Chase said that there is extending cognitive skills in adulthood, including; an achieving stage, a responsibility stage and an executive stage. Creativity peaks in adulthood in relation to lyrical poetry or theoretical math’s or physics in an adults ass-ass, and in areas such as philosophy or history later in adulthood.
Emotional A psychologist named Erikson gave much input in to the emotional development of adulthood, he said that in early adulthood there will be a conflict of intimacy vs.. Where an adult will be avoiding isolation learning to form an attachment to a partner, they will be trying to not be too self-centered or defensive. Middle adulthood: this is where an adult will be attempting to stay involved with their social life and legislations, but there will be a loss of interest in social issues which will create a risk of emotional stagnation.
In early adulthood friendship networks will be very important and they will be forming adult, sexual relationships and starting a career which will have some form of career pathway. Adults will be thinking about and will be likely to experience marriage and parenthood. Mature adults may have a reduced amount of time socializing within friendship networks due to their time being priorities to child care, parent care, work and other family commitments. Older adulthood (65+ years) Older adults will be less active and are therefore likely to put on weight regardless of eating the same as they previously had.
They will be more susceptible to disease and illness, for example; osteoporosis, arthritis, stroke and flu. Older adults will also be prone to falling over as their balance will moderately decrease, half of over ox’s currently meet the equality act definition of disabled. It is in older adulthood where Chaises re-integrative stage occurs, this is where due to having a limited amount of energy older adults will only focus on tasks that are important to them. There will be a plasticity of cognitive skills in this life stage; this will be effected by a lack of stimulation, anxiety and disease, for example dementia.
Older adults are likely to have a certain sense of wisdom, this will be shown by and due to experience, empathy and understanding. Emotional In older adulthood there will be a conflict of ego integrity vs.. Despair, meaning that in order to cope with aging and death an adult will need to have developed a secure sense of self. A failure to do this will result in despair. Older adults are likely to have heir emotions highly effected by experiencing different forms of loss, this could be of purposes and roles, health and/or death of friends and family.
Retirement will have a large impact on an older adult’s social interaction as they will no longer be working, however an increasing number of over ass are working each year. Because of this, older adults will have much more free time but are likely to focus on existing relationships rather than search for new ones. A problem with the solicitation of the elderly is loneliness, 1 in 10 over ass say that they often or always eel lonely, this will link with older adulthood’s emotional development. Australia, K. 2014.
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