Chronic Disease In St Lucia Health And Social Care Essay

Chronic disease is a disease of a long continuance and by and large slow patterned advance ( WHO, 2010 ) . The U.S. National Center for Health Statistics states that a chronic disease is one enduring 3 months or more. These chronic diseases usually can non be prevented by vaccinums or cured by medicine, nor do they merely disappear. Chronic diseases are chiefly caused by three major hazard factors – baccy usage, hapless eating wonts and physical inaction. Majority of these hazard factors are themselves worsened by hapless socioeconomic determiners, such as deficiency of instruction and poorness. Most frequently these determiners are a indicant of the chief forces driving societal, economic and cultural passage, including globalization, urbanization and an ageing populations.
Chronic diseases are impacting population wellness as the epidemiological passage advancements and are the lead cause of mortality worldwide and pose increasing jobs for the load of disease and quality of life in developed and developing states ( WHO, 2003 ) . Non catching diseases include a wide scope of conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, malignant neoplastic diseases, chronic respiratory disease, mental-health jobs and musculo- skeletal upsets. The first four mentioned above history for about 50 % of mortality globally, and portion behavioral hazard factors, such as extra Calorie ingestion, diets high in saturated and transfatty acids, inordinate consumption of intoxicant, physical inaction, and baccy smoke. Approximately 35 million people have died from bosom disease, shot, malignant neoplastic disease and other chronic diseases in the twelvemonth 2005. The loads of these diseases are every bit shared among work forces and adult females, and are more prevailing in people under the age 70 ( WHO, 2004 ) . 80 % of chronic disease deceases occur in low and in-between income states.
Figure 1: Global distribution of entire deceases ( 58 million ) by cause in 2005.

The age-specific decease rates between the old ages 2005 – 2015 are projected to fluctuate somewhat, Nevertheless, the ageing populations will ensue in an overall addition in chronic disease decease rates for all ages combined. In 2005, all chronic diseases account for 72 % of the entire planetary load of disease in the population aged 30 old ages and older. The entire lost old ages of healthy life due to chronic diseases, as measured by DALYs, are greater in grownups aged 30-59 old ages than for ages 60 old ages and older. More than 80 % of the load of chronic diseases occurs in people under the age of 70 old ages.
Table 1: Projected planetary deceases and load of disease due to chronic disease by age 2005- 2015
Deaths ( Million ) DALYs ( 1000000s ) Deaths per 10000 DALYs per 100000
2005 2015 2005 2015 2005 2015 2005 2015
0-29 old ages 17 15 220 219 48 40 6320 5994
30-59 old ages 7 8 305 349 311 297 13304 13375
60-69 7 8 101 125 1911 1695 27965 26396
a‰?70 20 24 99 116 6467 6469 32457 31614
All ages 35 41 725 808 549 577 11262 11380
World Health Organization undertakings that, globally, NCD deceases will increase by 17 % over the following 10 old ages. The greatest addition of 27 % and 25 % severally will be seen in the African part and the Eastern Mediterranean part ( WHO, )
1.2 Types of chronic diseases
1.2.1Cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease CVD is the term used by the scientific community to encompass non merely conditions of the bosom [ ischaemic bosom disease ( IHD ) , valvular, muscular, and inborn bosom disease but besides high blood pressure and conditions affecting the cerebral, carotid, and peripheral circulation. The hazard of CVD is related to diet, physical activity, and organic structure ( ) . The forms of nutrient supplies and of nutrient and nutrition that modify the hazard of CVD are besides good known.
Whereas CVD was one time mostly confined to high-income states, it is now the figure one cause of decease worldwide every bit good as in low- and middle-income states, where 80 per centum of the universe ‘s 13 million one-year CVD deceases occur. And at least 21 million old ages of disability-adjusted life old ages ( or DALYs, a step of future productive life ) are lost globally because of CVD each twelvemonth. The huge bulk of CVD can be attributed to conventional hazard factors such as baccy usage, high blood force per unit area, high blood glucose, lipid abnormalcies, fleshiness, and physical inaction.
Cardiovascular diseases are major cause of chronic disease decease and were accounted for of 17 million deceases in 2002. It is estimated that by the twelvemonth 2030, 24 million will decease of CVD, of which 80 % will happen in low and in-between income states ( 5 ) .
1.2.2 Cancer
Cancer is a major and turning disease load worldwide. The figure of new malignant neoplastic disease instances is projected to increase from 10 million in 2000 to 15 million in 2020, 9 million of which would be in developing states. The epidemiology of malignant neoplastic disease in developing states clearly differs from that in developed states in of import respects. While developed states frequently have comparatively high rates of lung, colorectal, chest, and prostate malignant neoplastic disease ( some of which is tied to tobacco usage, occupational carcinogens, and diet and lifestyle ) , up to 25 % of malignant neoplastic diseases in developing states is associated with chronic infections. Seven types of malignant neoplastic diseases account for about 60 per centum of all freshly diagnosed malignant neoplastic disease instances and malignant neoplastic disease deceases in developing states: cervical, liver, tummy, esophageal, lung, colorectal, and chest.
1.2.3 Respiratory Diseases
Chronic grownup respiratory diseases-such as chronic clogging pneumonic disease ( COPD ) and asthma-are a major and turning load in footings of morbidity and mortality in the underdeveloped universe. COPD ( which includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and clogging air passages disease ) is mostly linked with coffin nail smoke every bit good as exposure to unvented coal-burning cookery ranges ; it accounts for 2 per centum of lost DALYs on a world-wide footing.
1.2.4 Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes affects people worldwide and is one of the oldest diseases known. There are two common types of this disease: type 1and type 2 diabetes. Type-1 diabetes histories for 5-10 % of all diagnosed diabetes. Type-2 diabetes is the most common signifier of diabetes. It accounts for 90-95 % of diagnosed diabetes.
The World Health Organization ( WHO ) estimated the world-wide prevalence of diabetes in grownups to be around 173 million in 2002 and predicted that there will be at least 350 million people with Type 2 diabetes by 2030. At present about two-thirds of individuals with diabetes live in developing states and the bulk of new instances will arise from these countries. The planetary addition in the incidence of diabetes is related to high degrees of fleshiness associated with a alteration from traditional diets, decreasing degrees of physical activity, population ripening and increasing urbanisation.
Diabetess Mellitus is the most prevailing signifier of diabetes on the planetary graduated table ( 6 ) . For the past few decennaries, Diabetes Mellitus has reached epidemic proportions in many parts of the universe. The World Health Organization ( WHO ) has predicted the planetary prevalence of all Diabetes will increase from 194 million in 2003 to 330 million in the twelvemonth 2030 ( 7 ) .
1.2.5 High blood pressure
Another normally happening chronic disease is high blood pressure. High blood force per unit area increases the hazard of bosom disease and shot. Hypertension is sustained high blood force per unit area ( a‰?140/90mmHg ) .
Blood force per unit area itself is the force per unit area exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vass. Each clip the bosom beats ( about 60-70 times a minute at remainder ) , it pumps blood into the arterias. Blood force per unit area is at its highest when the bosom beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic blood force per unit area. When the bosom is at remainder, between beats, blood force per unit area falls. This is diastolic force per unit area. Blood force per unit area itself is non harmful – it is indispensable as it is the force that drives blood through the blood vass to provide O and foods to the organic structure ‘s variety meats and tissues and transport off godforsaken stuffs. However, when blood force per unit area becomes excessively high it has detrimental effects on about every
portion of the organic structure and can take to serious unwellness and decease. Hypertension is an of import public wellness challenge worldwide because of its prevalence and its function as a hazard factor for cardiovascular disease. Some of the hazard factors of high blood pressure include fleshiness, intoxicant, household history, and smoke.
There are two types of high blood pressure, viz. primary high blood pressure and secondary high blood pressure. Primary high blood pressure is more common, happening in 90-95 % of the high blood pressure population. There is no identifiable cause and it develops bit by bit over many old ages. Secondary high blood pressure occurs in 5-10 % of the high blood pressure population. ( )
In the twelvemonth 2000 it was estimated that the entire figure of grownups with high blood pressure was 972 million. Of these, 333 million were estimated to be in developed states and 639 million in developing states ( 0 ) . Kearney PM et al. , predicted that by the twelvemonth 2025, the figure of people with high blood pressure will increase by about 60 % to a sum of 1.56 billion. ( Kearney PM et al. , 2005 ) the grounds are the go oning population addition and alterations in life style, which includes a diet high in sugar and high-fat processed nutrients and sedentarism.
1.3 Impact of chronic disease in the Caribbean
Caribbean states are in epidemiological passage, where non merely nutritionary lacks have well declined but infective diseases have besides been vanishing. However, over the last 30 old ages, nutrition-related chronic non-communicable diseases have easy emerged as the major public wellness jobs. Non-communicable diseases ( NCDs ) have bit by bit displaced catching diseases in the Caribbean. Ratess of chronic non-communicable disease such as diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and malignant neoplastic disease have been increasing in the Caribbean and are the taking cause of mortality and mobility in the part ( Ragoobirsinghet al. , 1995, 2002 ; Wilkset al. , 1998, 1999 ; Figueroaet al. , 1999 ; Rotimi et al. , 1999 ; Cruickshanket al. , 2001, Figueroa, 2001 ; Sargeantet al. , 2001 ; Henniset al. , 2002a, B ; Corbinet al. , 2004 ; Wolfeet al. , 2006 ) . Of concern is the fact that while the prevalence and mortality rates of these diseases are highest in the aged, they are non restricted to any one age group. An estimated 10 % to 20 % of the Caribbean population over 20 old ages of age suffers from diabetes and high blood pressure, severally, with prevalence more than duplicating at older ages ( Hennis et al. , 2002a, B ) . High blood pressure and diabetes rank as the two taking chronic upsets among Caribbean populations and are besides major hazard factors for other diseases such as cerebrovascular disease ( shot ) and coronary bosom disease.
Prevalence of chronic diseases in the Caribbean part over the base on balls 3 decennaries
Another dramatic epidemic among the Caribbean population is the high prevalence of fleshy [ organic structure mass index ( BMI ) & gt ; 25 kilogram ma?’2 ] and fleshiness ( BMI & gt ; 30 kg ma?’2 ) . Approximately half of the grownup Caribbean population is fleshy and 25 % of big Caribbean adult females are corpulent ( Henry, 2004 ) . The intensifying tendency in fleshiness is considered to be a major causative factor in chronic disease prevalence in the part. The increasing fleshiness degrees, chiefly among adult females, possibly associated with the alterations in traditional diets and the acceptance of sedentary life styles. In some the islands more than half of big adult females are reported to be corpulent. Datas from Barbados highlights the importance of fleshiness as a hazard factor in chronic diseases. Based on available grounds, corpulent individuals, ( BMI & gt ; 30 ) of 40-79 old ages had a 2.6 times greater hazard of high blood pressure than individuals with BMI & lt ; 25, and corpulent adult females had 5.2 times the hazard of developing diabetes. It is estimated that cut downing fleshiness in the Barbadian population could cut down high blood pressure and diabetes by 30 % and 33 % severally.
1.4 Impact of chronic disease in St. Lucia
St. Lucia has undergone a important demographic passage in the last 3 decennaries ( Wilks, et al. , 1998 ) . Some characteristics of this passage include the rise in the average age of the population from 20 old ages to 15 old ages between 1970 and 2010, the doubling of the proportion of individuals older than 60 old ages old from 5000 to over 17,000 and the addition in life anticipation at birth from less than 50 old ages in 1950 to greater than 73 old ages in 2010 ( World population prospectus, 2008 ) . As a consequence, the chief causes of unwellness and decease in St. Lucia and many other Caribbean islands and parts at a similar province of development are the chronic non-communicable diseases ( Sargeant et al. , 2001 ) . There is an increased prevalence of diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases, such as cardio-vascular diseases, diabetes and fleshiness. ( Wilks et al. , 1998 ) . Between 1992-1999 in St. Lucia, preventable chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and circulative systems accounted for 20.8 % of deceases, with the major causes being cerebrovascular disease, ischaemic bosom disease, and hypertensive disease. Other major causes of decease were malignant neoplastic diseases ( 14.5 % ) , disease of the digestive system ( 8.7 % ) , and diabetes ( 7.2 % ) ( 8 ) . Approximately 1,304 deceases were due to diseases of the circulatory system and was accounted for 33 % of all reported deceases, decease due to cerebrovascular was ( 35.9 % ) , hypertensive disease ( 14.8 % ) , and ischaemic bosom disease ( 13.6 % ) ( Health in America, 1998 ) .
There were 731 deceases due to cardiovascular disease from 1996 to 1999, accounting for 19 % of all deceases and 53 % of deceases ratio of 5.8:1. Most ( 21 or 62 % ) occurred in the 15-44 old ages age group, and had a male-female ratio of 9.5:1. Cardiac apprehension caused 268 cardiovascular deceases ( 37 % ) , ischaemic bosom disease 174 ( 24 % ) , pneumonic circulation and other signifiers of bosom disease 134 ( 18 % ) , and bosom failure 153 ( 21 % ) . Females accounted for 359 ( 49 % ) of deceases due to cardiovascular disease, and individuals 60 old ages of age or older accounted for 588 deceases ( 80 % ) . ( WHO statistics ) . Based on PAHO statistic St. Lucia is the 10th taking island in the Caribbean with high rates of non- catching chronic disease, accounting for about 63 % .
Over the old ages prevalence of non catching diseases have been increasing, in a study done by the Kairi advisers limited in association with the national appraisal squad of St. Lucia concluded the undermentioned findings for the twelvemonth 2005 to 2006 for the distribution of chronic disease in St. Lucia. Irrespective of per capita ingestion quintile, high blood force per unit area was the most prevailing lifestyle disease impacting individuals with diseases in St. Lucia. In every quintile group, it besides shows that the prevalence of diabetes ranks second to high blood force per unit area as a life clip disease impacting individuals with diseases in St. Lucia. In each of the quintile groups, more than three fifths of the individuals with diseases reported enduring from high blood force per unit area while more than one one-fourth reported enduring from diabetes.
In the twelvemonth 2007 diabetes and Hypertension were the two the most permeant and declining wellness jobs confronting the island of St Lucia. The diseases afflict a wide swath of people, immature and old.
St. Lucia has a population of about 160,000 thousand people, and of this 28.1 % of the population have abnormal blood glucose or high blood sugar and 8.1 % have diabetes ( Graven et al. , 2007 ) . 20 % of people over 40 old ages of age suffer with the disease ( the ministry of wellness 2007 ) . At least 35 % of those with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus do non cognize that they have the status ( The Ministry of Health, 2008 ) . In rural country of St. Lucia the proportion with undiagnosed diabetes is well higher ( St. Lucia Diabetic Society, 2008 ) . At the clip of diagnosing, every ten percent individual with diabetes has already developed one or more micro- or macro-vascular complications ( Ministry of Health, 2008 ) .
Diabetess is among the taking cause of decease. If inadequately treated, diabetes can do sightlessness, kidney disease, nervus disease, amputations, bosom disease, and shot. Even painstaking and well-treated diabetics often suffer from these complications and have above-average medical costs.
If observed, the Native St. Lucian has many barriers to wellness instruction, which fundamentally involves their civilization, life style, handiness and socio-economic position. For case, St. Lucian is presently sing a crisis of poorness. Peoples from lower socioeconomic position have poorer wellness than those in higher socioeconomic places. Assorted surveies have reported the relationship between low socioeconomic position and the development of chronic disease ( ( Lynch et al, 2000 ; Stelmach et Al, 2009 ; Supriya et Al, 2009 ) .
Recent poorness appraisals in St. Lucia estimation that 18.7 % of families and 25 % of the population live in poorness. Income inequality is high, with 26 % of the population characterized as inveterate hapless ( MPDEH, 2003 ) . That same study estimated that a decennary subsequently in 2005/06 the poorness rate had increased to 28.8 % of the population ( Government of St. Lucia ( GOVST ) , The appraisal of Poverty volume1, 2006 ) .The highest poorness rates in2005/06 were in the territories of Anse La Raye/Canaries ( 44.9 % ) , Micoud ( 43.6 % ) , Soufriere ( 42.5 % ) and Laborie ( 42.1 % ) . The poorness spread and poorness badness besides occurred in these same territories ( GOVST, 2006 )
Furthermore, because of poorness and life in rural countries, most people consume less expensive and frequently high fat nutrients, and less fruits and veggies ( Henchy et al, 2000 ) . Brown et Al, ( 2005 ) described how socioeconomic place influences wellness among individuals with diabetes. Diabetes is twice more prevailing in low income populations compared to wealthy populations ( Stelmach W et Al ; 2009 ) . Some accounts for this increased hazard among people of low-income or resource-poor countries include increased emphasis, low entree to medical and preventative attention, and hapless environment.
1.5 Diet, nutrition and chronic diseases
There are clear associations between the assorted biomedical and behavioral chronic disease hazard factors, and it is good established that diet quality and healthy feeding patterns play an of import function in both preventing and pull offing chronic diseases and the factors that increase their hazard ( Kant A.K, 2004 ) . The links with nutrient and nutritionary position are particularly strong in the instance of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and their hazard factors ( metabolic syndrome, fleshiness, high blood pressure and lipemia ) . The nutrient we eat, in all cultural choice, defines one ‘s wellness, growing and development. Hazard behaviors, peculiarly smoke and sedentarism, alter the consequence ( ) . All this takes topographic point in a societal, cultural, political and economic environment that can worsen the wellness of populations.
Diet is a cardinal constituent in predisposing to chronic disease, chiefly where diet is energy dense doing positive energy balance and fleshiness. Adoption of western diet which are high in fats, aminal protein, refined saccharides and low in fiber, fruits and vegetable can farther increase one hazard of developing no of more chronic disease ( ) . Several surveies have demonstrated a prudent diet rich in fruits, veggies, fish and wholegrain to be associated with a diminution in chronic disease hazard such as diabetes ( Van Dam et al. , 2002 ; Anne-Helen Harding et al. , 2004 )
Carbohydrates nutrient beginning are the most of import beginning of Calories for the universe ‘s population chiefly because of their low cost and broad handiness ( ) . Although Carbohydrates is easy accessible and widely eaten saccharide is a cardinal dietetic constituent impacting insulin secernment and postprandial glycemia and is implicated in the etiology of many chronic diseases ( Brand-Miller JC et al. , 2004 ) . Both the measure and type of saccharide eaten have effects on insulin secernment and postprandial glycemia. Foods with a rich glycemic index ( or glycemic burden ) produce high rates in blood glucose.A Diets including big measures of high GL nutrients increase the hazard of diabetes, chest malignant neoplastic disease, colorectal malignant neoplastic disease, endometrial malignant neoplastic disease, and overall chronic disease ( Barclay AW et al. , 2008 ) .
Dietary fibers
Epidemiologic grounds has shown that nutrients rich in fiber aid glycaemic control in diseases such as type 2 diabetic patients ( ) . A diet high in fiber helps in control blood sugar degrees in those with type 2 diabetes. It besides helps with colon wellness as the high fiber diet with smoothing the stool and facilitates to burden loss ( ) .
Dietary fat is one of the most influential foods in wellness. Fats has many maps in the human organic structure, Equally good as to supplying more than twice the energy supplied by saccharides and proteins and providing indispensable fatty acids, fats slows digestion of saccharides in order to fuel the encephalon he fats serve as bearers for fat soluble vitamins ( A, D, E and K ) and as parts of cell membranes ( ) .
The overconsumption of fat, chiefly saturated fat, has been linked to six of the 10 prima causes of decease worldwide ( ) .Coronary bosom disease and malignant neoplastic disease ( ) .There is a strong nexus between dietetic fat ingestion and hazard of chronic diseases such as malignant neoplastic disease, such as colon, chest, prostate, and ovary malignant neoplastic disease ( ) . Several surveies over the past 30 old ages have verified the relationship of high dietetic fat intake with higher mortality due to assorted malignant neoplastic diseases ( ) . Some saturated fatty acids raise blood cholesterin degrees and, therefore, increase the hazard of coronary artery disease ( ) . High fat, consumption is a chief cause of fleshiness, high blood pressure, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and gall bladder disease ( ) .
Surveies have show that states with higher per capita consumptions of fat, particularly carnal fat, have higher incidence rates of certain malignant neoplastic diseases, including chest, colon, prostate, and pancreas. [ 41 ] Migrational surveies show that when persons move from a state of low fat consumption to one of high fat consumption, the hazard of some malignant neoplastic diseases increases [ 42 ] .
Vitamins are indispensable foods hey are required in little sums, but have of import and specific maps such as advancing growing, reproduction and the care of wellness. Nutritionally, they form a cohesive group of organic compounds that are required in the diet in little sums ( mcgs or mgs per twenty-four hours ) for the care of normal wellness and metabolic unity. They are therefore differentiated from the indispensable minerals and hint elements ( which are inorganic ) and from indispensable amino and fatty acids, which are required in larger sums.
Vitamin lack nevertheless, may increase the hazard of chronic diseases ( ) . Suboptimal folic acid degrees, along with suboptimal degrees of vitamins B ( 6 ) and B ( 12 ) , are a hazard factor for cardiovascular disease, nervous tubing defects, and colon and chest malignant neoplastic disease ( ) and low degrees of the antioxidant vitamins ( vitamins A, E, and C ) may increase hazard for several chronic diseases. .
Nutritional Passage
There are now about 350 million corpulent and more than 1 billion fleshy people in the universe, populating in both developed and developing states. Previously, developing states grappled with undernutrition. Now many of these states like St. Lucia are in a transitional province and are covering with the twin immoralities of under- and over nutrition. In the Caribbean states between the 1970s and 1990s, the prevalence of overweight/obesity increased from 7 % in work forces and 20 % in adult females in the 1970s to 22 % in work forces and 58 % in adult females ( Ragoobirsingh D et al. , 2004 ) .
The planetary prevalence of fleshy amongst preschool kids is estimated at 3.3 % . Within the Caribbean part and St. Lucia has one of the highest incidences for this age group with St. Lucia holding 2.5 % of the 0-5 yr. population ( De Onis M et al. , October 2000 ) .Obesity in kids and striplings is known to hold important impact on both physical and psychosocial wellness, these surging rates of fleshiness leads to an addition in lipemia, high blood pressure, insulin opposition and unnatural glucose tolerance subsequently in life ( Reilly et al. , 2003 ; Weiss et al. , 2004 ) .
Urbanization, industrialisation and transmutation procedures have been the chief cause of this public wellness achievement. In modern civilizations, demographic factors interact with societal and economic factors and lead to alterations in the forms of wellness and diseases as hypothesized by Omran ‘s epidemiological passage theory in the early 1970s ( Orman et al. , 1971 ) . Omran ‘s theory describes the altering form of mortality from the predominant catching diseases to the emerging non-communicable diseases. In his survey, Omran defined three phases of epidemiological passage, i.e. ‘the age of plague and dearth ‘ , ‘the age of withdrawing pandemics ‘ , and ‘the age of degenerative and semisynthetic diseases ‘ ( Orman et al. , 1971 ) .
1.6 Dietary wonts of St. Lucians
Food wonts reflect the plantation past: the typical diet contains a batch of starches, carnal protein content that varies by location, and until late, small in the manner of green veggies. Starches include assorted sorts of yams, taro, taro, bananas and plantains, Sweet murphies, manioc and Artocarpus communis. Most of these are boiled, served with some sort of boiled fish or meat, and accompanied by a sauce. Pepper ( pepper ) sauce is ever present at the tabular array, as most dishes are non prepared spicy hot. Animal protein beginnings reflect the historical scarceness of this component: porc Rhine wines, hog tail ( fresh and salted ) , chicken back, and saltfish, ( pod ) salted beef, fish ( tuna, winging fishing, ruddy center, barracuda, sharke, pilchards, doodly-squat fish ) . Most of the dishes are prepared with fats such as ; coconut oil, lards, xanthous butter. Equally much as St. Lucia has a broad assortment of fruit they are merely eaten Fruits such as ; Mangifera indicas, aureate apple, papaia, Citrus paradisi, oranges, cherries, Anacardium occidentale, sugar apple ( love apple ) .Main dishes are accompanied by veggies such as, alligator pear, calaloo, Spinacia oleracea, tomatoes, okras, carrots, pigeon peas and lentils,
Imported processed nutrients have been available for decennaries, but more late account for larger parts of many repasts. Foods such as pasta, rice,
1.7 Cause for chronic non-communicable diseases in St. Lucia
Chronic diseases have legion hazard factors, which function at different degrees, from the most proximal ( i.e. biological ) , to the most distal ( i.e. structural ) . These hazard factors can be classified as ‘modifiable ‘ and ‘non-modifiable hazard factors ‘ . Modifiable determiners include factors that can be altered, such as single and community influences, life and on the job conditions and socio-cultural factors, non-modifiable determiners include those factors that are beyond the control of the person, such as age, sex and familial factors.
1.7.1 Biological factors
Some populations are susceptible to chronic disease because of familial cistrons. In a south Africa a tribal group “ Afrikanders ” have been found to hold familial hypercholesteremia, a rare familial upset, characterised by really high low-density lipoprotein, cholesterin and early cardiovascular disease. ( Steyn K et al.,1996 ) . Familial and lifestyle factors are considered to be the chief subscribers in doing type 2 diabetes ( O’Rahilly et al ; 2005 ) . The familial make-up of a individual is every bit indispensable to the development of the disease but a individual life style and environmental factors can lend significantly. Some of the major lending factors include fleshy, abdominal fleshiness and physical inaction and to lesser extent intrauterine and early childhood factors ( Alberti et al, 2007 )
1.7.2 Early life beginning
The clip between intrauterine growing and the development is the most vulnerable period in the life rhythm and topographic points major physiological, metabolic and psychological demand on the female parent to back up the growing and the development of the foetus ( Allen, 2001 ) . Good growing and development is dependent on a sufficient supply of energy and foods. Under nutriment during gestation is linked with hapless gestation and neonatal results which can hold negative long term deductions for the baby such as a decrease in intelligence, growing upset, low unsusceptibility, increased morbidity, mortality and the development of a scope of diseases during maturity ( Rasmussen, 2001 )
It is proposed that type 2 diabetes consequences from comparative intrauterine malnutrition and the latter leads to lifelong scheduling ( Baker et al ; 1986 ) . Children with low birth weight are most likely to see growing restraint, whether due to intrauterine nutritionary limitation or familial sensitivity to low birth weight ; similar associations of low birth weight have been made for the development of diabetes ( Lindsay et al ; 2001 ) . Babies who are born low birth weight tend to turn fast after birth ‘catch-up growing ‘ , frequently become fleshy as immature kids. They are most likely to develop high blood force per unit area and unnatural blood glucose degree early in life, which future increase their hazard of developing chronic diseases, such as bosom disease and diabetes ( Barkeret al. , 1997 ) . The prevalence of Low Birth Weight ( LBW ) is about 6 and 9 % in the Caribbean. The association between low birth weight and grownup disease makes pressing the concern of these high LBW prevalence rates in the Caribbean ( Henry ; 2000 ) .
An under-nourishes kid is usually a smaller and shorter kid ( 0 ) Acrobatics is an indicant of long standing mal and under-nutrition and is frequently accompanied by fat deposition, peculiarly around the abdominal subdivision when faced with nutrient in copiousness. Predisposing persons to fleshiness in maturity. ( )
Similarly kids who are born to big female parent and are big for their gestational age are most likely to bring on insulin opposition and type 2 diabetes subsequently in life ( Bennett et al ; 2002 ) . In Jamaica kids shortness at birth and increased current weight are independent forecasters of insulin opposition ( Bennett et al ; 2002 ) .
There is important sum of grounds, chiefly from developed states, that states intrauterine growing deceleration is connected with an increased hazard of coronary bosom disease, shot, diabetes and elevated blood force per unit area ( WHO, 2002 ; Godfrey et al. , 2000 ; Forse et al. , 2000 ) . It may be the form of growing, i.e. restricted foetal growing followed by really fast postpartum catch-up growing that is critical in the implicit in disease tracts. Likewise, big size at birth is besides associated with an increased hazard of diabetes and cardiovascular disease ( McCance DR et al. , 1996 ; Leon DA et al. , 1998 ) .
Behavioural hazard factors ( lifestyle factors )
Lifestyles play an of import function in finding chronic diseases and lifestyle alterations are likely to be responsible for a important proportion of their addition over clip.
1.7.3 Poor diet
Nutrition is a major modifiable determiner of chronic diseases, with scientific grounds back uping the position that alterations in diet have effects on wellness result of a individual. Non-communicable diseases are linked to high ingestion of energy dense nutrients, made of carnal beginning and of nutrients processed or prepared with added fat, sugar and salt. ( )
St. Lucia is undergoing rapid nutritionary passage ( Boyne, 2008 ) . There has been an addition of fast-food eating houses, and an increased in the ingestion of repasts high in fat, sugar, and salt and a decrease in the ingestion of cereals, grains, fruits, veggies, tubers, and leguminous plants ( Jacoby et al.,2008 ) . The increased ingestion of imported nutrients high in fat and Na has led to a diminution of the wellness position of people throughout the part, with an addition in wellness jobs such as fleshiness and diabetes ( Report from WHO, 2003 ) .
1.7.4 Physical inaction
Physical inaction and sedentary life style is linked with increased degrees of fleshiness, chest malignant neoplastic disease, colon malignant neoplastic disease, osteoporosis, emphasis, anxiousness and depression ( Hardman et al. , 2001 ; Warburton et al. , 2001 ) , and one of the chief implicit in causes of mortality in the universe.
1.7.5 Smoke
Smoke of baccy is one of the most modifiable hazard factors and preventable causes of decease in the universe. The World Health Organization ( WHO ) attributes to about 4 million deceases a twelvemonth to tobacco usage. It has been responsible for 22 % of cardiovascular diseases in industrialised states, and for the huge bulk of some malignant neoplastic diseases and chronic respiratory diseases ( WHO, 2002 ) . It is projected by the 2030 smoke will kill one in six people globally, if the present tendencies persist. ( WHO, 2002 ) . This anticipation of decease will include about 7 million people in developing states ( Mackay, WHO ; 2002 ) Smoke has been linked with premature mortality amongst users, with cardiovascular disease ( i.e. shot and bosom onslaught ) doing most deceases and is closely followed by chronic lung diseases, such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema and lung malignant neoplastic disease.
( Bjartveit et al. , 2005 ) .
Alcohol maltreatment is deemed to be the beginning of 8 % -18 % of the entire load of disease in work forces and 2 % -4 % in adult females. The Rate of smoking in among work forces in St. Lucia is at its highest therefore addition the hazard of chronic diseases.
1.8 Social determiners of wellness
The societal determiners of wellness incorporate implicit in causes of wellness jobs which includes environmental factors, working position and lodging and life conditions and socio-cultural factors that have an consequence on the wellness of a population. These factors besides increase the hazard of an single developing non-communicable disease.
1.8.1 Urbanization and globalization
Urbanization is a cardinal hazard factor in the development of non-communicable diseases epidemic, as the economic system grows and develops into a more ‘modernised ‘ society and the populations easy migrate from rural to urban countries.
In St. Lucia, the per centum of people populating in urban countries has increased from 43.3 % in 1996 to 47.5 % in 2001, ( ) . Surveies have shown that urbanization leads to dietetic alterations towards acceptance of the alleged ‘western diet ‘ , which is high in carnal proteins, fat and sugar. ( 20 ) This is frequently accompanied by lifestyle alterations including intoxicant ingestion, coffin nail smoke and physical inaction increasing the population ‘s hazard for non-communicable diseases. ( 34 )
1.8.2Environmental factors
1..8.3 Obesogenic environment
The function of the media plays a really important function in advertisement, selling and advancing the ingestion of high energy dense nutrients and fast nutrients mercantile establishments with big part sizes. In a survey to place major beginnings of nutritionary information among urban Black South African adult females, found that telecasting was the most extremely believable beginning of information. This influenced nutrient picks based on gustatory sensation, household penchants and price.35
Other factors associated to hapless eating patterns include, easy entree to cheap unhealthy nutrients compared to the high monetary values of healthy nutrients.
1.8.4 Structural environmental factors
Structural environmental factors include environmental factors that might move as an obstruction to take parting in physical activity, such as a deficiency of playing Fieldss, Parkss, proper pavements and exercising installations, every bit good as the being of offense and force on the streets.
1.8.5 Socio-cultural factors
Beliefs and attitudes about organic structure image of some persons have been found to increase the hazard for developing non catching diseases. The belief that tenuity is associated with personal jobs and illness, particularly HIV and AIDS, seems to be a barrier to keeping normal organic structure weight in some persons ( ) . Attach toing beliefs about organic structure weight are socio-cultural factors related to nutrient consumption, which partially contributes to fleshiness in some persons. ( )
1.9 The economic impact of chronic diseases in ST. Lucia
Chronic diseases have had and continue to hold a major economic impact on persons, households, and the wellness system in St.Lucia ( ) . Since chronic diseases affect the immature and people in their productive old ages, they cut down productive labor and gaining capacity at a family degree. Treatment of chronic diseases puts much strain on the already overburdened wellness system, because of the extra resources required. The load is non merely on the wellness attention system but besides but besides indirectly causes loss of productiveness from the disable, absenteeism and early decease.
Chronic diseases such as bosom disease, malignant neoplastic disease and diabetes negatively affect the general wellness position and quality of life of persons, and there is an absence in the literature of surveies looking at the wellness position of individuals in St. Lucia with chronic non-communicable diseases. It is against this background that this survey was undertaken. This survey is designed to research and reexamine the association between diet, lifestyle and chronic non-communicable disease in St. Lucia.
This comprehensive systematic reappraisal seeks to analyze the association between diet, lifestyle and hazard of chronic disease among St. Lucians.
To analyse the form of chronic disease hazard factor distribution in a well defined population in St. Lucia
To analyse or critically measure the 30 most normally nutrient eaten in St. Lucian
To analyze dietetic forms, nutrient picks and wonts of St. Lucian
To synthesise qualitative findings diet, lifestyle and chronic diseases
Research Question
The Prevalence and incidence of chronic diseases is really high in St. Lucia and is the chief cause of decease in the island. Does St. Lucian diet and lifestyle contribute to additions figure of chronic diseases in the state?
Null hypothesis:
St. Lucian diet and life style has no direct impact on the prevalence of chronic diseases in St. Lucia
Alternate hypothesis:
St. Lucia diet and life style has an impact on the prevalence of chronic disease
Chapter 2
2.0 Methodology
This research will be b?°N•ed on N•ec??nd?°ry informations collected from assorted reliable beginnings and used to bring forth new informations as a footing for analysing the life style and 30 most normally eaten nutrients in St. Lucia in relation to chronic diseases. This type of research will non affect human topic.
The literature hunt scheme is described in a drumhead in Figure.
The information was taken from journal articles and published b????kN• . By definition, secondary research describes information gathered through literature, publication, broadcast media, and other non-human beginnings.
Literature hunt scheme
Figure 1 Literature hunt scheme and survey design
The hunt, covered publications between the old ages 1985 to 2009. The undermentioned beginnings were included in the hunt procedure.
Electronic library databases
To increase the fullness of the research and cut down the ambiguity, cardinal words were used merely when mapped capable headers and the Thesaurus were non available for a peculiar hunt database. Chronic disease was used as the chief hunt term and combined with extra footings deemed relevant to the cardinal inquiries. These extra footings were identified, nutrition, diet, lifestyle. Databases searched included the followers: MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, CINAHL ( Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature ) , CDSR ( Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ) , ACP Journal Club ( American College of Physicians Evidence Based
Medicine ) , CCTR ( Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials ) Health Star, PAIS ( Public Affairs Information Service ) , Proceedings First, Population Index, Proquest Digital Dissertations, Science direct, Pub Med.
Hand hunts
A manus hunt of the International Journal of Chronic disease for the old ages 1985 to July 2009 was conducted. Mention lists from studies were manus searched for other eligible studies.
The cyberspace hunt. foremost, involved utilizing the hunt engine, Google, with the footings ‘Chronic disease ‘ and ‘diet ‘ and either ‘lifestyle ‘ , ‘prevalence ‘.To eliminate irrelevant sites, the research was limited to hunts utilizing predefined standards based on several ushers for happening dependable information from trusty beginnings on the Internet. Sites were eliminated if ( I ) they were clearly merely commercial ; ( two ) they did non look to be trusty or dependable beginnings ( i.e. personal home pages ) ; and/or ( three ) had small to no relevant information.
Inclusion/exclusion standards
The hunt was limited to English studies, which included columns, and theoretical reappraisals, PhD thesis and other grade plants, sum-ups of conferences, historical documents and book reappraisals. Letterss to the editor, columns were excluded. Documents selected for retrieval were assessed in a two-stage procedure. In the first phase, documents were selected based on reading of rubric and abstract. The 2nd phase involved reading of the full text of the articles selected, to set up the grade to which the paper satisfies inclusion/exclusion standards.
Critical Appraisal:
The research worker used the QARI ( Qualitative Appraisal and Review Instrument ) critical assessment instrument from the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information bundle ( SUMARI ) ( see Appendix 1 for difficult transcript ) .
Data extraction:
Data was extracted from documents utilizing the QARI informations extraction procedure which aggregated findings and seeked to classs and synthesis. Data was extracted manually utilizing the standardized informations extraction tool in QARI ( see Appendix 1 for difficult transcript of extraction tool ) and contained within the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review the Information bundle ( SUMARI ) .
Where meta-synthesis was possible, qualitative research findings were pooled utilizing the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument ( QARI ) . This procedure involved the collection of findings and categorized to bring forth a set of synthesized statements that represent such collection.

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more